Complexity and differentiation of the MDMA retail market: insights from the European Web Survey on Drugs

Last updated on 18-1-2023 by Lies Gremeaux

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Scientific book or chapter



In recent years the European MDMA market has been characterised by the increasing availability of high-strength products, resulting in a number of deaths. Most studies documenting the patterns and trends in use of this stimulant have grouped tablet (‘ecstasy’) and powder/crystal forms together into a single category, which could lead to an underestimation of MDMA use. This study uses data from nine countries covered in the European Web Survey on Drugs (EWSD) to study intensity of use and patterns of buying behaviours among MDMA users, with specific attention given to comparing the use of MD

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