The traditional rabies control strategy based on annual mass vaccination of dogs appears to be costly and cumbersome. Given the existence of different risk zones for rabies transmission, the present study aimed at proposing risk-based vaccination schemes by considering canine population dynamics as well as vaccine efficacy and duration of immunity (DOI). The capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (RDC), Kinshasa, was chosen as study site. The turnover rate of dogs was used to assess their population dynamics in two low-roaming (<25 % of dogs are roaming) and in two high-roaming zones (>75 % of dogs are roaming). The sero-conversion rate was assessed in response to primo-vaccination in three age groups: 24 puppies (≤3months), 37 juveniles (4-12 months) and 22 adult dogs. The DOI was evaluated serologically by revaccinating dogs previously vaccinated since 1-2 years (n = 31), 2-3 years (n = 12) or 3-7.5 years (n = 4). Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test was used to quantify antibodies. These data were used to implement vaccination outcome models.The turnover rate was twice as high in high-roaming zones (36 %) as that in lowroaming zones (17 %). Irrespective of roaming level, 75 % of dogs were less than 3 years old. The vaccine was equally effective in puppies (96 %), juvenile (97 %) and adult dogs (100 %, p = 0.24). The vaccine was effective in 93 % (11/12) of puppies without pre-vaccinal protective titers (≥0.5 IU/mL). The anamnestic response was strong within 5-8 days upon the booster vaccination, in 96 % (45/47) of dogs reported vaccinated 1-7.5 years before. This suggests that the vaccine provided a long-term protection (≥3 years) which is likely to occur in 75 % of dogs in Kinshasa.Hypothesizing a vaccination stop, the vaccination outcome model allowed to estimate the time point after which vaccination coverage would drop below 40 % in function of dog population turnover rate. The systematic vaccination of puppies as well as annual vaccination of dogs aged between 3 and 15 months or annual vaccination of all unvaccinated dogs aged more than 3 months of age appeared as valuable alternative to systematic annual mass vaccination.In conclusion, this study developed a vaccination outcome model pointing out the impact of dog population dynamics and of effective duration of immunity. It appears as a promising tool for designing cost-effective rabies vaccination campaigns.