Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Humboldt Penguins—Susceptibility Patterns andMolecular Epidemiology of Clinical and Environmental Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from a Belgian Zoo

Last updated on 30-11-2023 by Hanne Debergh

Public Access


Peer reviewed scientific article



Aspergillus fumigatus is the main causative agent of avian aspergillosis and results in significant health problems in birds, especially those living in captivity. The fungal contamination by A. fumigatus in the environment of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), located in a Belgian zoo, was assessed through the analysis of air, water, sand and nest samples during four non-consecutive days in 2021–2022. From these samples, potential azole-resistant A. fumigatus (ARAF) isolates were detected using a selective culture medium. A total of 28 veterinary isolates ob…

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