E174 (silver) is a food additive that may contain silver nanoparticles (AgNP). Validated methods are needed to size and quantify these particles in a regulatory context. However, no validations have yet been performed with food additives or real samples containing food additives requiring a sample preparation step prior to analysis. A single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) method was developed and validated for sizing and quantifying the fraction of AgNP in E174 and in products containing E174, and associated uncertainties related to sample preparation, analysis and data interpretation were unraveled. The expanded measurement uncertainty for AgNP sizing was calculated to be 16% in E174-containing food products and increased up to 23% in E174 itself. The E174 food additives showed a large silver background concentration combined with a relatively low number of nanoparticles, making data interpretation more challenging than in the products. The standard uncertainties related to sample preparation, analysis, and challenging data interpretation were respectively 4.7%, 6.5%, and 6.0% for triplicate performances. For a single replicate sample, the uncertainty related to sample preparation increased to 6.8%. The expanded measurement uncertainty related to the concentration determination was 25-45% in these complex samples, without a clear distinction between additives and products. Overall, the validation parameters obtained for spICP-MS seem to be fit for the purpose of characterizing AgNP in E174 or E174-containing products.