Recently, the unexpected presence of a viable unauthorized genetically modified bacterium in a commercialized food enzyme (protease) product originating from a microbial fermentation process has been notified at the European level (RASFF 2019.3332). This finding was made possible thanks to the use of the next-generation sequencing technology, as reported in this study. Whole-genome sequencing was used to characterize the genetic modification comprising a sequence from the pUB110 shuttle vector (GenBank: M19465.1), harbouring antimicrobial resistance genes conferring a resistance to kanamycine, neomycin and bleomycin, flanked on each side by a sequence coding for a protease (GenBank: WP_032874795.1). In addition, based on these data, two real-time PCR methods, that can be used by enforcement laboratories, specific to this unauthorized genetically modified bacterium were developed and validated. The present study emphasizes the key role that whole-genome sequencing can take for detection of unknown and unauthorized genetically modified microorganisms in commercialized microbial fermentation products intended for the food and feed chain. Moreover, current issues encountered by the Competent Authorities and enforcement laboratories with such unexpected contaminations and the importance of performing official controls were highlighted.