Bovine brucellosis is an endemic infectious disease which can impact cattle productivity and welfare negatively, as well as human health. Sufficient knowledge on its epidemiology, particularly on species and biotypes of Brucella at national and/or regional scale are important to set up and implement efficient control measures against brucellosis in a "One health" perspective. The main objective of this review was to investigate available literature on strains of Brucella in order to provide a state of art-knowledge on species and biovars reported in cattle from West Africa. A literature search was conducted to identify relevant data on species and biovars of Brucella in cattle from Western African countries. This search included studies presenting bacteriological and/or molecular results of identification and typing, relied on international classification methods with no time limit and no language restrictions. Studies reporting results of identification at genus level only were not considered for this review. This review revealed that Brucella abortus was the most prevalent species in cattle from West Africa, in line with host preference for Brucellae. So far, biovars 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and intermediate biovar 3/6 of B. abortus were reported in cattle in the region. Among these strains, biovars 3, recently identified in The Gambia and Ivory Coast, was the most commonly isolated. Brucella melitensis and/or B. suis have not been mentioned yet in cattle in this part of Africa. The public health significance of prevailing strains is discussed and a regional collaborative control program of brucellosis is suggested.