Nicotine Dependence and Urinary Nicotine, Cotinine and Hydroxycotinine Levels in Daily Smokers.

Last updated on 7-4-2021 by Jill Alexandre

Public Access


Peer reviewed scientific article



INTRODUCTION: Nicotine dependence and smoking frequency are critical factors for smoking cessation. The aims of this study are (1) to determine if nicotine dependence Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) scores are associated with urinary levels of nicotine metabolites, (2) to assess the relationship of hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio with FTND score and cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), and (3) to identify significant predictors of cigarettes per day among biomarker concentrations and individual FTND items.METHODS: Urine samples and questionnaire data of 239 daily smokers were obta…

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