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In Belgium, variations in thyroid cancer incidence were observed around the major nuclear sites. The present ecological study investigates whether there is an excess incidence of thyroid cancer among people living in the vicinity of the four nuclear sites at the smallest Belgian geographical level. Rate ratios were obtained from a Bayesian hierarchical model for areas of varying sizes around the nuclear sites. Focused hypothesis tests and generalized additive models were performed to test the hypothesis of a gradient in thyroid cancer incidence with increasing levels of surrogate exposures….